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Analysis of materials of main auto parts

Time : 2019-09-13 Hits : 2019-09-13

Let's take a look at the main components of the car and some main materials of parts!


(1)High-strength steel plate

Although the tensile strength of the former high-strength steel plate is higher than that of the low-carbon steel plate, the elongation rate is Only 50% of the latter, so it is only suitable for simple shapes and small extension depth Components. The current high-strength steel plate is added with appropriate trace elements in low-carbon steel.

It is made by rolling through various treatments, and its tensile strength is as high as 420 N/mm2

It is 2~3 times that of ordinary low carbon steel plate, and the deep drawing performance is excellent, and it can be rolled into a very thin steel plate is an important material for lightweight body. By 2000, the amount of its usage has risen to about 50%. China's Chery Automobile Company cooperated with Baosteel, the amount of high-strength steel used in the trial production in 2001 was 262 kg, accounting for 46% of the body steel plate is used to reduce weight and improve body performance.

(2)Aluminum alloy

Compared with automobile steel plate, aluminum alloy has the advantages of low density    (2.7 g/cm3), high specific gravity, low cost, low cost, low cost, high strength, corrosion resistance, good thermal stability, easy forming, recyclability and so on. 

As all aluminum alloys can be recycled, it is very popular with environmentalists.

(3)Magnesium alloy and titanium alloy

The density of magnesium is 1.8g/cm3, which is only 35% of steel, and 66% of aluminum. In addition, it has specific strength, high specific stiffness, high damping, and good thermal conductivity.

Its electromagnetic shielding ability and dimensional stability are also good, so it has been widely used in industry and automobile.

The specific gravity of titanium is 4.6g/cm3, which is only 1/2 of iron, but its strength and hardness exceed steel, and not easy to rust. Automobile engine parts cast with titanium alloy are lighter, stronger and more corrosion-resistant, the titanium alloy body can withstand greater force.

(4)Foam alloy sheet

The foam alloy plate is made of powder alloy, which is characterized by low density and only 0.4~0.7g/cm3, It also has good elasticity, when compressed and deformed by force, the elasticity can help restore the shape of it. 


(1)Engine cover

The structure of the engine hood is mainly composed of inner and outer panels and a local reinforced version. Inner plate with the outer panel is combined by flanging, bonding, etc. The local reinforced version is welded or bonded in the hinge and door lock are installed to increase the assembly rigidity. 

The shape of the outer panel should be consistent with the whole vehicle, and have anti-dent and anti-corrosion requirements;The inner plate should have a higher one rigid, and punched with various shapes of sockets, stiffeners, holes to install accessories. The traditional engine cover uses low carbon steel as the material, and uses the casting method to process. With lightweight as one of the main directions of automobile development, the use of new lightweight materials is increasing.

The main materials of the hood:

Low carbon steel

High strength steel

Aluminum alloy

Composite materials

Magnesium alloy

(2)Engine block

Cylinder block materials should have sufficient strength, good castability and machinability, and the price should be low, so the commonly used cylinder block materials are cast iron and alloy cast iron. But aluminum alloy cylinder block is used more and more widely, because the aluminum alloy cylinder block has light weight and good thermal conductivity, and the capacity of coolant can be reduced.

After the engine is started, the cylinder block quickly reaches the working temperature, and the thermal expansion coefficient is exactly the same as the aluminum piston. After being heated, the clearance changes little, which can reduce the impact noise and oil consumption. And the thermal expansion is the same as that of aluminum alloy cylinder head, which can reduce the thermal stress caused by cold and hot shock.

The construction materials of automobiles can reflect the technological level of materials used by human beings. At present, six main materials such as steel, iron, plastic, aluminum, rubber, and glass account for 90% of the mass of the car, and the remaining 10% are other kinds of materials, including non-ferrous metals (copper, lead, zinc, tin, etc.). Liquids (fuels, lubricants, other oils and water-based liquids, etc.), paints, and fiber products used in the equipment. For example, Fukang cars use 55% steel, 12% cast iron, 12% plastic, 6% aluminum, and 3% rubber.